Category Archives: Yeast

The-gluten-and-pizza

Gluten and pizza

Today I'll talk about Gluten trying to do it in a very simple way.. This word, in recent times has become part of our everyday vocabulary, part of (merit) goes to those suffering from some disorder of food intolerance, up to the celiac disease can not tolerate gluten absolutely. And to think that we find commonly in all leavened products from the oven.

Gluten and pizza
Dough for pizza
GLUTEN AND PIZZA

When we begin to knead flour and water, you begin to form the lattice glutinico. We find the gluten in all flours, even if in a different way.

Each type of flour has a different protein value (Gliadine and Glutenine) that upon contact with the water to rise to a protein complex called precisely gluten. Gluten form a lattice in our dough that will be the backbone of the mix that supports it and it does not do it rise deflate. The reticle is visible if we look at the interior of a slice of bread, where we can observe the alveolus or lattice that is formed.

Gluten and pizza
Slice of bread

The percentage of gluten that contains a flour that is mixed with water as the unit of measure the "strength"Which is shown in all packs of flour with the symbol The. Then, the greater the value of W, the greater the strength of that flour.

The flour for biscuits average has a W ranging from 130 to 170

Flour for pizza has a W ranging from 240 (pizza quick rise), to a W higher than the 300 (for long leavening also 24 hours in the fridge)

Panettone and Pandoro to support its own weight (eggs,butter, flour,,water) need of a flour with W ranging up to 450.

The classic packs of flour in the supermarket do not report this value (The) then choose a flour where it is clearly indicated "flour for pizza"

It might be helpful, also the reading of protein values ​​shown in the pack of flour:

Protein values ​​up to 10% are index of flour for pastries, cookies or tarts.

Protein values ​​ranging dall'11-13% are index flours suitable for the pizza, bread and all the buns

Values ​​above 14%: Flour for bakery products that require a large structure.

Now that we know what gluten, let's see how it behaves in our dough, but this I will explain in the next article.

What says wikipedia about gluten?

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The yeast for the pizza

The yeast for the pizza

The yeast for the pizza

The yeast for the pizza
The yeast for the pizza

The yeast for pizza is formed by microorganisms "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" that entered in'Dough of flour and water, and then cause the fermentation leavening, namely the transformation of sugars into carbon dioxide.

The yeast for the pizza

We can find it on the market in two different forms:

  • In the form of cubes called fresh yeast, short expiry, strictly to be kept in a refrigerator, This type of yeast is used in all pizzerias, responds quickly because the microorganisms are already active in its interior.
  • Granules, called dry yeast. You buy in supermarkets. Is nothing but the fresh yeast which is subjected to the process of dehydration. This type of yeast has a deadline very long since in the absence of water microorganisms are paused. To use it, we have to add it in warm water for a few minutes.

For the right amount to use we could say that 1 gram of dry yeast equivalent to 3 grams of fresh yeast.

For all the housewives or all enthusiasts who want to make pizza at home we give advice: Use fresh yeast. So doing shortened times Proving and maturation of your dough.

To those who have much time available we suggest you use the yeast or natural for kneading, perhaps coupled with a pinch of yeast, to have absolute certainty that the dough will rise. The results obtained will be superior in terms of richness of flavor and fragrances. In this article explains how to make your home the natural yeast or yeast.

Amount of yeast to use:

Whatever your recipe that followed, I warn: Are you using too much yeast.

After mixed and prepared thousands and thousands of pizzas in my life, I assure you that for our classic dough 4 people who can view in this article, are needed 1,5 grams. I understand that you trust, I agree with you that you have to do it quickly rise to bake and eat it, but the use of a higher dose could compromise your final product, giving the pizza a strong smell of yeast. Better to use a little yeast and give the right to the dough rising time, maybe until it has doubled in volume.

Some of my colleagues uses a stick of 25 grams to prepare 600 pizza in pizzeria, leaving the dough to rise in the refrigerator for more than 24 ..lascio hours ... you draw conclusions.

So to all those who will compete in making pizza at home, counsel to prepare the dough in the morning, then use it in the evening for dinner. You will have a final product perfectly leavened and mature to perfection.

Baking pizza beer
Yeast

What says wikipedia on yeast

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Difference between the various types of yeast

Difference between various types of yeast

Difference between various types of yeast?

The process of proving it can be summed up in three different categories: Chemical leavening, physical and biological leavening leavening.

We are used to seeing the yeast in different ways, in the form of dough, dried granules, or as sourdough.

What is the difference between different types of yeast?

Leavening is a process that allows the formation of gas within a dough, it does increase in volume both before, both during cooking.

Let's see how these processes occur.

PROVING PHYSICS

The pastry dough rises with the physical process
The puff pastry, produced with the process of leavening physical

This technique is widely used in confectionery. Questo tipo di lievitazione avviene grazie alla dilatazione termica dell’impasto durante la cottura. Products that contain inside egg whites are shining examples: the egg white mixed dough, thanks to the protein structure, manages to retain the air inside; while cooking the air bubbles remain trapped in the mesh structure of the protein re-inflating the sweet. Another example of this type of leavening is given by the puff pastry, where layers of fat such as butter and margarine are stacked in layers of dough. In cooking, the water vapor that is formed between the layers browsed is restrained from fat, creating empty areas within the product.

PROVING CHEMISTRY: YEAST CHEMICAL POWDER

Baking powder
Baking powder

This type of leavening, is used in many bakery products especially in the professional and home cakes. The function of this yeast is to produce carbon dioxide during cooking, re-inflating the dough. Il lievito chimico è un composto in polvere formato prevalentemente da bicarbonato di sodio unito a un elemento acido che produce anidride carbonica durante la cottura. The first baking powders were created at the end of industrially 1800. Un altro tipo di lievitazione chimica è rappresentata dal bicarbonato d’ammonio o ammoniaca per dolci che è utilizzato nella preparazione di biscotti particolarmente friabili. The downside of this type of yeast is given precisely by the smell of ammonia which should be eliminated in the cooking following the right timing.

PROVING BIOLOGICAL: BREWER'S YEAST AND YEAST MOTHER

Dried yeast and diced
Dried yeast and diced

Leavening organic produce carbon dioxide through mechanisms of alcoholic fermentation that occur at the cellular level; i due principali agenti lievitanti sono il lievito compresso e il lievito naturale o lievito madre. The mechanisms of biological leavening were known since ancient times, When mixtures of water and flour were rested developing yeast which then in cooking rigonfiavano product. In 1930 was isolated the first yeast and performed an industrial production. Il lievito compresso si presenta sia in forma di panetto sia sotto forma di granuli disidratati. Il nome corretto è Saccaromyces Cerevisiae (da cerevisia, beer, in latino) and is a single-celled fungus that reproduces by budding.

Commonly called brewer's yeast perché in passato si ricavava da depositi che si formavano durante la fermentazione dei fusti di birra, today is produced with a compound from molasses; subsequently, through industrial processes, the yeast is compressed in cakes.

Dehydrated: The same yeast is dehydrated by reducing moisture and obtaining the granules of dry yeast.

Il Saccaromyces Cerevisiae è un fungo che inizia a riprodursi in presenza di ossigeno: This occurs thanks to the presence of air incorporated during the steps of mixing. Out of oxygen, the fungus triggers a mechanism of fermentation which produces ethyl alcohol and the part of carbon dioxide that is used to re-inflate the alveolar and doughs, before and during cooking.

Mother Natural yeast
Yeast

Il lievito naturale o pasta madre è un importante processo della lievitazione biologica. Was used in baking long before the yeast, the sourdough is a mixture of water and flour, left to ferment at room temperature, develops colonies of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that reproduce and, in the mixing phase, have power leavening. The leavening process is equal to that of the yeast: alcoholic fermentation with gas production that create volume and alveoli in the cooked product. Unlike the compressed yeast, con il quale ha in comune la presenza del Saccaromyces Cerevisiae, sourdough develops inside multiple colonies of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria: the latter is an important difference between the compressed yeast and sourdough, in quanto la loro fermentazione sviluppa profumi e sapori particolari molto ricercati nel campo della panificazione. The higher acidity present in naturally leavened dough also allows a longer shelf life of the product, or a delay in the staling of the same.

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Mistakes not to make when preparing the pizza at home

Have you ever tried to make pizza at home?

Pizza dough by hand
Pizza dough by hand

We all have tried at least once to make pizza at home, obtaining different results, satisfied by some
product obtained, Delicious, nice to see, with carefully selected ingredients, it happens sometimes, that our pizza
just as we can not imagine the.

It does not seem the case to be discouraged, becoming a po’ attention and following our advice, you can get
excellent results even in your own home.
In the many years that I do this work, I have acquired the necessary experience and knowledge, it happened to me many times
taste the homemade pizza made from various more or less good, and I tried to incorporate into this article a list
defects encountered, so that you can face and solve during the preparation of your home made pizzas
your.
This is a list of the most common mistakes:

Strong smell of yeast
The use of flour are not suitable for the pizza dough
An incorrect use of’dough in the preparation of pizza
Misuse of ingredients “aqueous” such as tomato, i funghi, mozzarella.

Strong smell of yeast

The fear that all those who prepare pizza at home is as follows: But if he does not rise, what we eat for dinner? that figure we make with the guests? and then…..down with a lot of yeast!!!! Of course so your dough will rise for sure, but there will be negative consequences for your pizza. This is what could happen: You will have a very rapid rising, but this prevents the maturation of the, while feasting your pizza, you will have a strong smell of yeast dough and pizza, a little fragrance and a subtle aroma,the dominant fragrance will only be that of lievito.La your pizza will be spongy, and will tend to dry out and crumble easily.
Solve this error easily, testing yourself the right amount of yeast for every kilo of flour is really a few grams, as you can see from our basic recipe for pizza, Start by using only half a cube of yeast, then in the next mixes usatene less, until you find the right balance between your mixing times and the proper maturation.

The use of flour are not suitable for the pizza dough

When you decide to make pizza at home, do not always have the right flour to prepare the pre impasto.Magari there remained half bag of flour that you used to make sweets lately and decide to use that.
The results obtained may be:
A rising very rapidly, A little mass consistent, during the preparation of the dough you will notice that it tends to tear and
a bucarsi, after cooking the dough may be too friable. The reason for this is due to the low amount of gluten contained in farina.La his weakness he will puncture during processing, also oppose little resistance to the gases that are formed during the leavening and then will swell rapidly.
With these features you will get, as in the case of too much yeast, a little pizza fragrant and aromatic and always for the
same reason: little time for the aging and the formation of aromatic compounds to rapidly rising.
To avoid this problem you need to choose meals with higher content of glutine.Sommariamente can be said to use
flour “0” and maybe check that the protein content reported in the nutrition labeling is at least 10%.

An incorrect use in the preparation of pizza dough

When we prepare the pizzas to our house and we spread the dough, of any shape we want to get, inexperience often we happen to work it too long, or maybe reimpastarlo again to be able to start again.
The dough must never be treated so, and reacts in this way:
Will become increasingly more difficult drafting balls
becomes hard and too elastic to roll out
In the cooking step, the pizza does not swell and remains compact and biscuit
All this because manipulating the dough too long we have the loss of gas rising and reaction to gluten
which hardens the dough.
The loss of leavening gas is due to the repeated crushing: crushes and rischiaccia, gases that made
l’impasto gonfio, soft leavened and escape out by returning the mixture almost to the starting volume and leaving much gluten compatto.Il, that we can imagine as consisting of tiny strings, reacts to the manipulation “curling”. The consequence, to the level of sensation under the hands, a dough is harder, more elastic and therefore more difficult to roll out.
We must do everything possible upstream to prevent this problem is present:
prepare the balls with care, avoiding mash too, accompanying the movement only with the palms of your hands. A
ball that has maintained its right amount of gas is the seed to be able to obtain a regular shape and texture
let stand corrected balls, in order to make him shoot a bit’ rising to “reload” il gas perduto
the rest also helps the gluten and gluten ridistendersi and a relaxed facilitates greatly the spread because it decreases the elasticity
learn how to write good crushing the ball as little as possible with your hands. “Ok, but however if for any reason I have to manipulate the dough does not have much hope?”
If also using all the attention, you are forced to reshuffle or having to manipulate a ball, convenient to proceed by reforming the ball and letting it sit for at least 10 minutes (maybe if you have more to spread, leave this for last), always to give a minimum of time to gluten to relax and the rising of a little reform’ di gas.

Overdo the tomato or other toppings aqueous

Cook a pizza to perfection means being able to lose water to the ingredients of seasoning, bathrooms without the dough and remains there to make the puddle.
When you are unable to obtain this result:
the pizza does not cook well in the central disk, remains rubbery and semicruda in the layer just beneath the dressing
excess water remains over the pizza and the cut bathes all
water can leak from cooking pizza and go on the cooking surface, soiling and scorching
It is a serious flaw, because it compromises the success of pizza, making it inedible even in the worst cases.
The more risk you run with the use of:
very watery mozzarella, not drained
very watery tomato, not drained
too much tomato
too many mushrooms
oven temperature too low

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Mother Natural yeast

How to prepare the yeast Mother (Sourdough) in casa

When I was a boy, I often listened to my grandparents telling me their life experiences. Among all those stories, some I was impressed in the mind, one of these on
all said that their time when a girl married, carried with it the “dowry” composed of things at once precious, sheets, ascigamani, valuables and yeast. This sourdough was handed down from generation to generation, was nothing more than a piece of bread dough that was given as a symbolic wish for the new generation. At that time there were no cubes of yeast that we find today in all
supermarkets.
Mother Natural yeast
The new family was kneading the dough piece “mother” with new flour and water, and the new bread leavened, and so they produced the new bread. With each new batter came off a piece of dough that would serve the next time. And so on for months, age, decades, from family to family and from generation to generation.

I've always been fascinated by the rise and this story, who knows that this has not affected my decision to make the pizza. To think that in that piece of pasta, fruit of doughs, reshuffles and still reshuffles, There are fragments of everyday life of the years, of past centuries, is incredible. Among all the grains of flour quell'impasto, if it still conceals someone's grandmother or great-grandmother.

For all those people who got married recently and have not brought with them the “dowry”, I suggest these few tips to create a home a new strain of yeast.

The result: the fragranza, the scent, the complexity and articulation aromatic, the pleasure of self-production of the same yeast.

How do you get?

It can be done as in the families of the past: tear off a piece from someone who uses it, so you are assured that he is alive, active and operating immediately.

But the departure from flour and water, it is undeniable, is most satisfying and enables you to tune into direct contact with the yeast.

It will become your yeast, equal to that of any other, because the son of a different environment for each. The exact opposite of standardization of yeast.

Try starting it simple:

kneading in a cup of water and 50g spotless 100 flour
mixture is creamy, cover with a damp dish, so that it is protected, but not sealed, leave in a draft-free and a little 'warm, ideal for me is a corner
a kitchen cabinet. Make every day what happens: within two or three days should show signs of fermentation (bubbles and lifting, sour smell). If it does not, becomes more likely the appearance of mold and should try again, perhaps choosing a meal you will find it less raffinata.Quando fermented, will mean that we have enjoyed some microorganisms, our yeast, that will need nurturing.
And you be providing him: kneads the embryo of yeast with more water and fresh flour, to obtain a mixture of similar consistency to the first and away again in the shelf.
This is called "refreshment".
Follow the above steps two or three times, always check that the smell is sour without exaggeration, the formation of bubbles and the dough is puffed up a bit '.
Now that the yeast (o lievito madre) reacts more quickly and that you just need a day or less to ferment the refreshment you can try to make us a first mixture of bread.
Until you're sure of its effectiveness, it will be better not to use it for pizza.

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The rule of 55, salt and fat in pizza dough.

We continue with the discussion on ingredients of the mixture, is the time to dedicate to the other two compulsory ingredients: water and salt.

Pizza dough by hand
Pizza dough by hand

We will also discuss the use of fat, but in this case already enter into the field of the optional ingredients, su cui, for a change, usually vehemently opposed philosophies differ in their.

We start from the water, second only in order of quantity over flour, but equivalent to it in terms of importance; is in fact the meeting between water and flour to make possible the formation of a dough.

What and how to use it is another important element to understand to prepare pizza at home. The first tip is to use natural mineral water because it is more convenient than tap water for three reasons::

  1. Tap water contains chlorine, used as a disinfectant; this characteristic makes it an antiseptic enemy of yeast and therefore there is no need to put it inside our bodies. If you find yourself without bottled water, and you're forced to use the tap water, first you have to leave in a jug for at least an hour in order to allow time for the chlorine to evaporate.
  2. In some areas, tap water can be overly harsh and in this case the only way to get more fresh water is to take it to the supermarket (Sant'Anna, Even the slightest, Sanbenedetto, Santacroce, etc.);
  3. It 'easier to manage the temperature, putting it in the refrigerator or less depending on season and room temperature.

This last point is important because the temperature of the water is the only element that can vary to control the final temperature of the mixture. Between summer and winter we may have differences in temperature (understood as the temperature of the room where we make our dough) also 10 degrees and this must be taken into account.

The dough for our pizza should have a temperature of about 24 degrees. Considering that produce heat during kneading, if the ambient temperature is 30 ° we have a little problem. The only way to intervene is the temperature of the water that in fact we have to put in the refrigerator during the hot season.

A good rule of thumb is the so-called rule 55: the sum of the ambient temperature, the temperature of the flour (consider that conventionally equals the ambient temperature) and water temperature must give us the value 55.

Let's take an example: if our temperature is 20 °, then the water will be more or less than 15 ° (20 + 20 + 15 = 55); but if we have 25 degrees as ambient temperature, then the water will be around 5 °.

Let the salt and even here it is necessary to keep in mind a couple of little things on how to use it properly.

Salt pizza dough

Salt is an inhibitor of yeast in the dough, it must be put as late as possible (instead you put the yeast dissolved in water immediately). salt has a positive effect on the formation of the gluten, therefore helps in closing the final dough.

The use of fat in the dough for the pizza is widespread, but it is not absolutely essential, in particular at home. One of the functions of the fat in the dough is to delay the staling, little fearful danger when the pizza is torn by 15 minutes maximum by cooking.

oil and butter in the dough for pizza

There remains the question of personal taste and their propensity intake of fat, in every way, If you decide to use them, know that it should be placed slurry already closed and very gradually.

The most common type of fat is definitely extra virgin olive oil, but lard is a plausible option.

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Yeast or brewer's yeast for pizza dough?

Yeast or brewer's yeast for pizza dough
Brewer's yeast

Yeast or brewer's yeast for pizza dough. The task of the yeast in the dough, and to increase the volume; for proving it means just that.

The increase in the volume of a dough is substantially due to the introduction of gas inside, This can happen in different ways.

If we prepare a sponge introduce air into when we incorporate the egg whites, while if we prepare cookies generally exploit a chemical reaction using a leavening agent (sodium bicarbonate or ammonium) che produce anidride carbonica.

Yeast or brewer's yeast for pizza dough

For bread and pizza, instead, using a leavening of biological. The production of carbon dioxide takes place by effect of the metabolism of the particular micro-organisms; there are two types of yeasts biological: the brewer's yeast and the so-called sourdough or natural.

The name is a bit 'confusing as any natural yeast is (in the sense that all exist in nature), but the name of "natural" means that around this type of yeast often develops an aura of "myth". So, the yeast is considered, no particular reasons, a more "organic".

The main difference between the yeast and the yeast is in the fact that while the first is composed of a single type of micro-organism, the second is a colony of many types of micro-organisms, many of which have complementary effects to those responsible for the rising and this means that a product made with natural yeast aromas and flavors develop richer, while improving the keeping quality and digestibility.

So better to use natural yeast for pizza? I would say no and I'll explain why.

  1. First, the natural yeast is much more complex to manage at home. Its creation and its proper maintenance require constant attention (is a bit 'like having a pet at home, maybe you do not need to take it out to make the needs, but he also wants to eat well and sometimes you have to give him a bath).
  2. The second downside is the lack of natural yeast consistent performance, particularly if it is not used very often (as is the case for example in a pizzeria).
  3. The third consideration is that the pizza is eaten freshly baked, and then the benefits on the shelf in this case we lose.

Brewer's yeast is rather simple to use and takes only a few rules to keep attention properly. The results are much more regular; if you really are a fan of sourdough, I recommend you not use it in place of yeast but in addition; in this way you can use the motor leavening of yeast and at the same time have the benefit organoleptic of the yeast.

Give birth to their own natural yeast is not complicated, but it requires a bit 'of time; if you are going to make the bread, worth having one on hand.

Let's go back to the yeast; the most common format is the dough from 25 grams of fresh yeast; You can also buy the yeast in dry form, but personally I do not recommend. When you buy the yeast, make sure that the expiry date is as far as possible and then hurry up and put it back in the refrigerator at 4 °.

You'll find that a loaf from 25 grams is an enormity of yeast, we'll be using very little; Once opened, however, the dough does not keep it more than a week wrapped in plastic wrap, then throw it well; seems like a waste if you always think that it costs about 25 cents, better to have it forever young and strong, a half-dead yeast will have a final result unsatisfactory.

The fresh yeast should be uniform beige color, if you notice parts with colorings "strange" try to eliminate them and look for a non-contaminated; generally the central part is less exposed to contaminants, and is therefore to be preferred.

Yeast or brewer's yeast for pizza dough

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Rules and doses to make pizza dough at home

Rules and doses to make pizza dough at home

Rules and doses to make pizza dough at home

Knead at home with their own hands, the best solution, the most simple and efficient. Knead by hand allows us to "feel" the dough as it is being formed.

Rules and doses to make pizza dough at home
Pizza dough by hand
Rules and doses to make pizza dough at home

Those who do not like too dirty hands, may use a planetary mixer, purchased at any electrical shop. Is less suitable for the bread machine though with small hydration doughs and not pushed too (60%) can be used.

When you knead, you have to follow a few simple rules.

  1. We start from the water, dissolving into the yeast Beer.
  2. Add the sifted flour; Sift the flour prevents the formation of clots but above all gives a good oxygenation of the
  3. Salt should be added just before the closing of the dough.
  4. It stops when kneading the dough forms a compact mass and shine, if you're mixing with a mixer, detaches completely from the bowl.
  5. If you use any fat, these are inserted only when the dough is already closed, slow, making them well absorb.
  6. Close a mixture is more or less simple depending on the flour used and the amount of water used; more flour is a strong, the easier it is to enter the amount of water more. The round Neapolitan-style pizza using flour of medium strength with hydration rather low, around 60%.
  7. In any case it is important not knead excessively because in this way is likely to unduly heat the dough or even ruin; In fact, beyond a certain threshold, the gluten will break down and the mixture is no longer usable.
  8. If you are having difficulty in closing the dough, rather than continue to knead it is better to stop the mixer to 5 the 10 minutes, flip the dough and continue to knead; the operation can be repeated several times if necessary.

To calculate the ingredients, we start with the number of pizzas we want to accomplish and weight; if we want to do 4 pats from 250 grams for each 4 people we need 1kg of dough, then we will need to 1000 / 1,60 = 625 grams of flour, the rest is calculated in proportion:

    1. Flour of medium strength (W240) 625 grams
    2. Water (60% flour) 375 grams
    3. Sale (2,5% flour) 15 grams
    4. Yeast (0,2% flour) 1,2 grams
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